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Michał Wielechowski
Łukasz Grzęda

Keywords : health care system, health expenditure, general government expenditure, out-of-pocket expenditure, Japanese candlestick charting
The aim of the paper was to present health care systems and assess the recent trend in health care expenditure in the European Union countries. The data source was the World Bank and European Statistical Office (Eurostat). The adopted research period covered the years 2000–2016, due to data availability. The methodology of the study was based on an analysis of data indicator series related to health care expenditure, which evaluate the national health care system performance. The research results were presented using primarily Japanese candlestick charting. The study showed that health care expenditure represented an ever-increasing burden for all the EU economies, both in absolute values and in relation to GDP. However, substantial differentiations in the amount and structure of health care expenditure were observed at the country level, having roots in the level of a country’s economic development and diverse post-war economic and political evolution. The analysis of health care expenditure structure confirmed that all three types of health care systems (Beveridge, Bismarck and mixed one) were observed in the EU, but the last one had a marginal importance. The form of system did not determine its effectiveness. On average, more than three-fourths of health care expenses were financed by general government expenditure. Out-of-pocket spending varied widely among the analysed EU member states.

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Wielechowski, M., & Grzęda, Łukasz. (2020). HEALTH CARE FINANCING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION COUNTRIES – STRUCTURE AND CHANGES. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Oeconomia, 19(1), 71–80.

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