Main Article Content

Maria Dunin-Wąsowicz

Keywords : inflation, inflation expectations, pandemic, long-term, short- term


 Aim: During the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020–2021, there was a significant increase in inflation and inflation expectations due to the government policies of the United States (US) and the European Union (EU), including the Euro Area (EA). With that being said, the evolving situation within these three po­litical-economic areas highlights the importance of understanding the relationship between inflation and inflation expectations, as perceived by both consumers and professional forecasters. The purpose of this article is to analyze the changes in these phenomena, using descriptive survey’ data analysis and a hybrid model of inflation expectations. Methods: The research methods refer to the descriptive survey data anal­ysis that provides evidence on the long-term courses of inflation in the US, the EU, and the EA, as well as the consumers’ and professional forecasters’ inflation expectations within the period 1999–2019. A hybrid model of inflation expectations has been used to estimate this data during the period of 2021. The study correlates and compares the findings of both types of research. Results: The results demonstrate that dur­ing the pandemic, the evidence supports the occurrence of periodic medium-high inflation in the studied economic areas. Inflation expectations in the US and the EU were periodically weakly anchored, although they were stabilized in the EA. Conclusions: The research, conducted by analyzing price trends and their expected trajectories over various timeframes, revealed consistent patterns. These patterns highlighted similarities in anticipated price changes before and during the pandemic.

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